How to Recover Your Funds If You Lose Your Bitcoin Wallet

Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given public key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[ Bitcoin ] Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

Topic originally posted in Bitcoin by almkglor [link]
This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given private key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

almkglor your post has been copied because one or more comments in this topic have been removed. This copy will preserve unmoderated topic. If you would like to opt-out, please send a message using [this link].
[deleted comment]
[deleted comment]
[deleted comment]
submitted by anticensor_bot to u/anticensor_bot [link] [comments]

Top 25 Questions and answer About Cryptocurrency

Top 25 Questions and answer About Cryptocurrency
https://preview.redd.it/dju4oz1g16c51.jpg?width=2400&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fe57edcd81ffa31bff95fe3026055020f7720dce
Cryptocurrencies have now become a buzz word. Despite the resilience that it faced initially, cryptocurrencies have come a long way. There are a total of around 5000 cryptocurrencies circulating in the market. If you plan to make a career in this domain, you need to run through the following questions.
1. What is a cryptocurrency?
Cryptocurrency is a digital currency that is transacted on a distributed ledger platform or decentralized platform or Blockchain. Any third party does not govern it, and the transaction takes place between peer-to-peer.
2. When was the first Cryptocurrency introduced?
The first Cryptocurrency or Bitcoin was introduced in the year 2009.
3. Who created Cryptocurrency?
Satoshi Nakamoto gave the first Cryptocurrency. The white paper for the same was given in 2008 and a computer program in 2009.
4. What are the top three cryptocurrencies?
The following are the three cryptocurrencies:
• Bitcoin (BTC) $128bn.
• Ethereum (ETH) $19.4bn.
• XRP (XRP) $8.22bn.
5. Where can you store Cryptocurrency?
Cryptocurrencies are stored in a digital wallet, and this is accessible via public and private keys. A public key is the address of your wallet, and the private key is the one that helps you in executing the transaction.
6. Which is the safest wallet for Cryptocurrency?
The most secured wallet for Cryptocurrency is a hardware wallet. It is not connected to the internet, and thus it is free from a hacking attack. It is also known as a cold wallet.
7. From where I can purchase cryptocurrencies?
The easiest way to buy Cryptocurrency is via crypto exchange. You can several crypto exchanges like Coinbase, Bitbuy, CHANGENow, Kraken etc.
8. What are the ten popular crypto exchanges?
The following are the best ten popular crypto exchange:
  1. Coinbase
  2. Binance
  3. FTX
  4. Cex.io
  5. Local Bitcoins
  6. Bitfinex
  7. LocalBitcoins
  8. Bittrex
  9. Coinmama
  10. Kraken
9. What are the key features of Blockchain?
We all know that Bitcoin or any other cryptocurrency runs on the Blockchain platform, which gives it some additional features like decentralization, transparency, faster speed, immutability and anonymity.
10. What is AltCoin?
It means Alternative Coin. All the cryptocurrencies other than Bitcoin are alternative coins. Similar to Bitcoin, AltCoins are not regulated by any bank. The market governs them.
11. Are cryptocurrency sites regulated?
Most cryptocurrency websites are not regulated.
12. How are Cryptocurrency and Blockchain related?
Blockchain platform aids cryptocurrency transactions, which makes use of authentication and encryption techniques. Cryptography enables technology for Cryptocurrency, thus ensuring secure transactions.
13. What is a nonce?
The mining process works on the pattern of validating transactions by solving a mathematical puzzle called proof-of-work. The latter determine a number or nonce along with a cryptographic hash algorithm to produce a hash value lower than a predefined target. The nonce is a random value used to vary the value of hash so that the final hash value meets the hash conditions.
14. How is Cryptocurrency different from other forms of payment?
Cryptocurrency runs on Blockchain technology, which gives it an advantage of immutability, cryptography, and decentralization. All the payments are recorded on the DLT, which is accessible from any part of the world. Moreover, it keeps the identity of the user anonymous.
15. Which is the best Cryptocurrency?
Several cryptocurrencies have surged into the market, and you can choose any of these. The best way to choose the right cryptocurrencies is to look at its market value and assess its performance. Some of the prominent choices are Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, XRP etc.
16. What is the worst thing that can happen while using Cryptocurrency?
One of the worst things could be you losing your private keys. These are the passwords that secure your wallet, and once they are lost, you cannot recover them.
17. What is the private key and public key?
Keys secure your cryptocurrency wallet; these are public key and private key. The public key is known to all, like your bank account number, on the hand, the private key is the password which protects your wallet and is only known to you.
18. How much should one invest in Cryptocurrency?
Well, investing in Cryptocurrency is a matter of choice. You can study how the market is performing, and based on the best performing cryptocurrency, you can choose to invest. If you are new to this, then it’s advisable that you must start small.
19. From where can one buy Bitcoin using Fiat currency?
Two of the popular choices that you have are Coinbase and Binance, where you can purchase Cryptocurrency using fiat currency.
20. Are the coins safe on exchanges?
All the exchanges have a high level of security. Besides, these are regularly updated to meet the security requirements, but it’s not advisable to leave your coins on them since they are prone to attack. Instead, you can choose a hard wallet to store your cryptocurrencies, which are considered the safest.
21. What determines the price of cryptocurrencies?
The price of cryptocurrencies is determined by the demand and supply in the market. Besides, how the market is performing also determines the price of cryptocurrencies.
22. What are some of the prominent cryptocurrencies terminologies?
There are jargons which are continuously used by people using cryptocurrencies are:
DYOR: Do Your Own Research
Dapps: Decentralized Applications
Spike: Shapr increase in the price of the Cryptocurrency
Pump: Manipulated increase in the price of a cryptocurrency
Dump: Shapr decline in the price of Cryptocurrency
23. How can I check the value of cryptocurrencies?
Various platforms will give you an update on the price of cryptocurrencies. You can keep a tab on them and check the pricing of cryptocurrencies.
24. What are the advantages of using digital currencies?
There are various advantages like you are saved from double-spending, the transactions are aster and secure. Moreover, digital currencies now have global acceptance.
25. What is the difference between cryptocurrencies and fiat currencies?
Cryptocurrencies are digital currencies which run on the Blockchain platform and are not governed by any government agencies, while the fiat currencies are the ones which are governed by authorities and government.
Conclusion- This was all the FAQs pertaining to cryptocurrency, for more such information keep coming back to Blockchain Council.
submitted by Blockchain_org to BlockchainStartups [link] [comments]

[Idea] Bech32 encoding of private keys

Ever since I saw BIP-173 I was excited to see the encoding used anywhere other than addresses. I've done some search but apart from some comments here and there I haven't been able to find any major work done (please let me know if you know of any proposals). Here is my idea of addressing some of the problems with current encoding of private keys:

Using Bech32 encoding instead of Base58

While writing a private key recovery tool I've felt how hard it is to come up with an optimized algorithm to recover a key that is missing a couple of characters (eg. a damaged paper wallet). That is not true with Bech32 being a multiply of base-2 algorithm is inherently faster, and the checksum is not a bottleneck since it is not a hash algorithm. Bech32 also has the benefit of having error detection.

Script (address) type

Currently when a user imports/sweeps a private key in a wallet client, that client either has to explicitly ask user for the script type (like Electrum) which means user is exposed to complications and has to be familiar with script types; or the wallet has to construct all script types and scan the blockchain for all of them (like bitcoin core) which adds more burden on the client. If the encoding included a script type that becomes so much easier.

Locktime!

Another burden on both clients and users (specially full node users) is the time consuming need for a re-scan of the entire blockchain to find the historical transactions that belong to an imported key. A timestamp can make that process a lot shorter. Using locktime (similar to last 4 bytes of any transaction) the key string (aka WIF) could include either a block height or a date-time value of when the key was created.
This idea was added to Bitcoin.Net library as an "experimental" class. Direct link to the code
Here is an example with a random key from Bitcoin.Net KeyHelper class:
Original WIF (Base-58): L28Peud5cQcijrtMthAdUS8FynpM8PKZtnoUZb1VAio9WxKoebHt Key bytes (Base-16): 92734fe879f662ff8ee4eb87dd019425e2ee73ff3edd0c4dc3def2f71e1a6a69 Version byte (ie. the script type): 0x02 or P2WPKH Date UTC: 5/4/2020 7:11:05 AM H.R.P.: bprv New encoding (versioned Bech-32): bprv1zjfe5l6re7e30lrhyawra6qv5yh3wuull8mwscnwrmme0w8s6df5sns90tcqqzyen4e 
Note that key is encoded the same way an address would be encoded (version byte is added separately as a 5-bit value instead of 8-bit).
submitted by Coding_Enthusiast to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: Storage rent

We’ve designed Ergo with long-term economic sustainability in mind, and storage rent is one of the ways we’re ensuring miners stay profitable well into the future. One community member, Robert, describes this function as ‘on-chain garbage collection’ that reduces the problem of blockchain bloat – and even makes it profitable.
The 2020 block reward reduction will probably be the most important halving Bitcoin ever experiences. This is the point where the narrative of programmatic scarcity and digital gold will truly be proven, in the context of the sharpest economic downturn in living memory. In previous halvings, Bitcoin has still been in its infancy, a niche experiment. Future halvings will confirm the principle. But this one is the watershed.
Looking ahead, though, what happens in 20 or 30 years, when block rewards have fallen so far that miners have to rely on tx fees and potentially other sources of revenue? Will Bitcoin be sustainable? What will be the impact on the ecosystem?
The simple answer is that we don’t know.
Mining rewards are a key feature in maintaining the security of proof-of-work blockchains like Bitcoin and Ergo. And so, while we have deliberately kept many of Bitcoin’s tried and tested features, we have updated this one to give miners a boost when block rewards have fallen to zero.
Lost coins
Digital scarcity is an important feature of Ergo. Like Bitcoin, ERG are designed to be a finite resource and long-term store of value. We do not agree with the principle of infinite inflation.
And yet, this has to be balanced against the needs to pay miners to secure the blockchain and process transactions. Without adequate compensation for miners, there is no viable blockchain at all. Ergo approaches this by slowly recycling lost coins, in a feature we call ‘Storage rent’.
Studies suggest that as many as 4 million BTC may have been lost forever. These are coins that were mined in the early days of Bitcoin and stored on hard drives that were subsequently thrown away or destroyed because the owners forgot about them or thought they were worthless, as well as coins in addresses for which the private keys have been lost. (And, of course, there’s Satoshi’s estimated holdings of 1 million BTC, which may never move.)
Where coins have genuinely been permanently taken out of circulation in this way, it makes sense to have a mechanism to recover them and put them back into the blockchain economy. That way, we can preserve digital scarcity without unnecessarily accelerating it. In other words, by attempting to stick to the intended algorithmic supply for any given point in time.
Ergo’s halving schedule is faster than Bitcoin’s. Block rewards start at 75 ERG, and decrease steadily after the first two years. There is no ‘long tail’ of emission, and after eight years block rewards will fall to zero. After that, total supply will be fixed. The number of ERG in existence will never be more than 97,739,925.
Storage fees
From that point, however, miners will need further incentives to secure the network. Miners have ongoing costs in terms of bandwidth and storage, and in cases where coins are simply left for years, there is typically no charge for reflecting the value of securing them. The tx fee that is paid up-front in Bitcoin is the only charge ever made for storing those coins.
In Ergo, in addition to transaction fees, miners will also be able to collect storage rent fees on UTXOs that have not been moved for four years or more.
Fees will be deducted slowly, over time – the unmoved UTXOs will not simply be appropriated by miners. Anyone who wants to avoid this simply needs to move their balances once every four years, which is not an onerous requirement for helping incentivise miners and avoiding the deflationary consequences of lost coins. You can read more about how fees will be levied in this paper.
In this way, Ergo seeks to ensure a balance between maintaining digital scarcity, on the one hand, and giving miners long-term incentives to secure the blockchain, on the other – long past the point where new coins have ceased to be released.
Share post:
Facebook
Twitter
Ergoplatform.org
submitted by kushti to ergoplatformorg [link] [comments]

[SHARE] Textbook Megathread #18 Free PDF

Download any of these for free at https://oppfiles.com/585933
DM me if you have any requests for anything not on the list.
If you want solution manuals/testbanks, you can also request them
Almost all the books are in their latest editions and some of them are available in multiple editions too.
Please subscribe the sub to find all the latest textbook releases.
Enjoy!
HEMODYNAMIC ROUNDS: INTERPRETATION OF CARDIAC PATHOPHYSIOLOGY FROM PRESSURE WAVEFORM ANALYSIS (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: EVERYDAY ENCOUNTERS (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK CFA PROGRAM CURRICULUM 2019 LEVEL II VOLUMES 1-6 – EBOOK HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (15TH EDITION) – EBOOK ADVANCED AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRONICS (CDX LEARNING SYSTEMS MASTER AUTOMOTIVE TECHNICIAN) – EBOOK STUDY GUIDE FOR PHARMACOLOGY: A PATIENT-CENTERED NURSING PROCESS APPROACH (8TH EDITION) – PDF MANAGEMENT ACROSS CULTURES (AUSTRALASIAN EDITION) – EBOOK TAYLOR’S POWER LAW: ORDER AND PATTERN IN NATURE – EBOOK THE CAMBRIDGE HANDBOOK OF EXPERTISE AND EXPERT PERFORMANCE (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK DEVELOPING ONLINE COURSES IN NURSING EDUCATION (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK CERTIFIED ACADEMIC CLINICAL NURSE EDUCATOR (CNE®CL) REVIEW MANUAL – EBOOK A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO PERSONAL CONDITIONING – EBOOK CALLED TO ACCOUNT: FINANCIAL FRAUDS THAT SHAPED THE ACCOUNTING PROFESSION (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS: INSTRUMENTS, COMMUNICATIONS, NAVIGATION, AND CONTROL – EBOOK MICROSOFT OFFICE 365 & OFFICE 2016 INTERMEDIATE – SHELLY CASHMAN SERIES – EBOOK AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRONICS – EBOOK HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK PARALEGAL TODAY: THE ESSENTIALS (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK THE ECONOMICS OF MONEY, BANKING AND FINANCIAL MARKETS (11TH EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK INTERMEDIATE ACCOUNTING: REPORTING AND ANALYSIS (2ND EDITION) – TESTBANK + ISM + POWERPOINT ETC SEGUI’S STEEL DESIGN (5TH EDITION) – INSTRUCTOR SOLUTIONS MANUAL USMLE STEP 2 CK LECTURE NOTES 2019: PSYCHIATRY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, ETHICS, PATIENT – PDF FINANCIAL MARKETS AND INSTITUTIONS (9TH GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK INTEGRATING WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY INTO CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT – EBOOK USMLE STEP 2 CK LECTURE NOTES 2019: OBSTETRICS/GYNECOLOGY – KAPLAN TEST PREP DESIGN OF HIGHWAY BRIDGES: AN LRFD APPROACH (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK BIM AND BIG DATA FOR CONSTRUCTION COST MANAGEMENT – EBOOK FUNDAMENTAL ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES (22ND EDITION) – TEST BANK + SOLUTIONS + PPT FUNDAMENTALS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK ANDERSON’S BUSINESS LAW AND THE LEGAL ENVIRONMENT (22ND EDITION) – PDF WILEY INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION OF IFRS STANDARDS – 2019 – EBOOK WILEY NOT-FOR-PROFIT GAAP 2018.: INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION OF GENERALLY ACCEPTED ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK PRINCIPLES OF AUDITING & OTHER ASSURANCE SERVICES (21ST EDITION) – EBOOK QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK BUSINESS ANALYTICS AND STATISTICS – EBOOK FINANCIAL AND MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING (7TH EDITION) – WILD, SHAW, CHIAPPETTA – EBOOK CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK MOTOR LEARNING AND CONTROL: CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS (11TH EDITION) – EBOOK MEDICAL ETHICS: ACCOUNTS OF GROUND-BREAKING CASES (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK COMMUNITY PROJECTS AS SOCIAL ACTIVISM: FROM DIRECT ACTION TO DIRECT SERVICES – EBOOK THE CITY: THE BASICS – KEVIN ARCHER – EBOOK Designing the User Interface Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction 6e global DESIGNING THE USER INTERFACE: STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION (6TH GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK COMPUTER SECURITY FUNDAMENTALS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK UBUNTU UNLEASHED 2019 EDITION: COVERING 18.04, 18.10, 19.04 (13TH EDITION) – EBOOK BECKER’S WORLD OF THE CELL (9TH EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY: PRINCIPLES FOR CLINICAL MEDICINE (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIALS OF CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK PROJECT MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT OF ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS OF THE BRAIN AND SPINE MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS WITH APPLICATIONS IN R (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK VERTEBROBASILAR ISCHEMIA AND HEMORRHAGE: CLINICAL FINDINGS, DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF POSTERIOR CIRCULATION DISEASE (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK ENGINEERING MECHANICS: STATICS, 8TH EDITION – BY MERIAM – PDF E-BOOKS, ENGINEERING, MECHANICS, SCIENCE, TEXTBOOKS MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: DIFFERENT FACETS – EBOOK BASIC ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF THE BRAIN AND SPINE (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK UNIVERSITY PHYSICS WITH MODERN PHYSICS (14TH EDITION) – EBOOK ROBERT HISRICH’S ENTREPRENEURSHIP (10TH EDITION) – (IRWIN MANAGEMENT) – EBOOK BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK NEW VENTURE CREATION: ENTREPRENEURSHIP FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (10TH EDITION) WONG’S NURSING CARE OF INFANTS AND CHILDREN (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK PRINCIPLES OF CANCER BIOLOGY – NEW INTERNATIONAL EDITION – EBOOK FORENSIC SCIENCE: FROM THE CRIME SCENE TO THE CRIME LAB (4TH EDITION) – TESTBANK + POWERPOINT INTRODUCTION TO JAVA PROGRAMMING AND DATA STRUCTURES, COMPREHENSIVE VERSION (11TH GLOBAL EDITION) UNIVERSITY PHYSICS FOR THE PHYSICAL AND LIFE SCIENCES – SOLUTION MANUAL PRINCIPLES OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK DEVITA, HELLMAN, AND ROSENBERG’S CANCER, PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF ONCOLOGY: REVIEW (4TH EDITION) LEARNING PYTHON APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT – EBOOK RESEARCH METHODS AND STATISTICS IN PSYCHOLOGY (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK MATERNAL CHILD NURSING CARE (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK SNAPSHOTS OF HEMODYNAMICS: AN AID FOR CLINICAL RESEARCH AND GRADUATE EDUCATION (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK YAMADA’S TEXTBOOK OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, 2 VOLUME SET (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK KRUGMAN’S ECONOMICS FOR AP® (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY (8TH EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK PRECALCULUS: GRAPHICAL, NUMERICAL, ALGEBRAIC (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING (7TH EUROPEAN EDITION) – EBOOK CLINICAL GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY: A COMPREHENSIVE ATLAS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK ADVANCED FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING (12TH EDITION) – EBOOK FORENSIC PLANT SCIENCE – EBOOK THE OXFORD HANDBOOK OF WITCHCRAFT IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE AND COLONIAL AMERICA – EBOOK THE MINDBODY WORKBOOK: A THIRTY DAY PROGRAM OF INSIGHT AND AWARENESS FOR PEOPLE WITH BACK PAIN AND OTHER DISORDERS – EBOOK HARRISON’S HEMATOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK JAVA IN TWO SEMESTERS: FEATURING JAVAFX (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK CHEMISTRY: THE CENTRAL SCIENCE (11TH EDITION) – TEST BANK WILLIAMSON’S MACROECONOMICS (6TH EDITION) – THE PEARSON SERIES IN ECONOMICS – EBOOK BIOLOGY: A GLOBAL APPROACH (11TH EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS TEXTBOOK OF PEDIATRIC CARE (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK BUSINESS LAW TODAY, COMPREHENSIVE: TEXT AND CASES: DIVERSE, ETHICAL, ONLINE, AND GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT (10TH EDITION) C++ PROGRAMMING: FROM PROBLEM ANALYSIS TO PROGRAM DESIGN (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS TODAY, ENHANCED (18TH EDITION) – EBOOK LUNG CANCER: A PRACTICAL APPROACH TO EVIDENCE-BASED CLINICAL EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT – EBOOK ROGERS’ TEXTBOOK OF PEDIATRIC INTENSIVE CARE (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY (5TH EDITION) – NIVALDO TRO – EBOOK EQUINE VETERINARY NURSING (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK CONTANZO’S PHYSIOLOGY (7TH EDITION) – BOARD REVIEW SERIES – EBOOK BAILEY AND LOVE’S SHORT PRACTICE OF SURGERY (27TH EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIALS OF HOSPITAL NEUROLOGY – EBOOK FAT FOR FUEL KETOGENIC COOKBOOK: RECIPES AND KETOGENIC KEYS TO HEALTH FROM A WORLD-CLASS DOCTOR AND AN INTERNATIONALLY RENOWNED CHEF COST ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGERS – EBOOK WARDLAW’S CONTEMPORARY NUTRITION UPDATED WITH 2015-2020 DIETARY GUIDELINES (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK OPERATIONS AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE FOR STRATEGIC IMPACT (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: POLISHING YOUR PROFESSIONAL PRESENCE (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK CONTEMPORARY ENGINEERING ECONOMICS (6TH EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK BIOCHEMISTRY: CONCEPTS AND CONNECTIONS (2ND EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK WHY PUNISH? HOW MUCH? A READER ON PUNISHMENT – EBOOK INTRODUCTORY ALGEBRA (11TH EDITION) – EBOOK DATA WRANGLING WITH JAVASCRIPT – EBOOK FUNDAMENTALS OF MANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT MYTHS DEBUNKED! (10TH GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK LARSON’S PRECALCULUS (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK E-BOOKS AN INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS – EBOOK INTRODUCTION TO CRYPTOGRAPHY: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIALS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR – 1ST CANADIAN EDITION – EBOOK CORPORATE FINANCE: THEORY AND PRACTICE (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK MACHINE ELEMENTS IN MECHANICAL DESIGN (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK PROGRAMMING BITCOIN: LEARN HOW TO PROGRAM BITCOIN FROM SCRATCH – EBOOK MINING THE SOCIAL WEB: DATA MINING FACEBOOK, TWITTER, LINKEDIN, INSTAGRAM, GITHUB, AND MORE (3RD EDITION) ECONOMICS (9TH EDITION) BY SLOMAN ET AL – EBOOK APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS (2ND EDITION – INTERNATIONAL) – EBOOK CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (7TH EDITION) GLOBAL BIOPSYCHOLOGY (10TH EDITION) GLOBAL – EBOOK COMPREHENSIVE CLINICAL NEPHROLOGY (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK MESSAGES: BUILDING INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS (5TH CANADIAN EDITION) – EBOOK APPLIED NUMERICAL METHODS WITH MATLAB FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS (4TH EDITION) BUSINESS DRIVEN TECHNOLOGY (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK FOUNDATIONS IN MICROBIOLOGY (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK HUMAN BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS AND CURRENT ISSUES (8TH EDITION – GLOBAL) – EBOOK BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS AND INVESTIGATIONS (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK DATABASE SYSTEMS: DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION, AND MANAGEMENT (12TH EDITION) HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, 14TH EDITION (GLOBAL) – EBOOK ECOSOPHICAL AESTHETICS: ART, ETHICS AND ECOLOGY WITH GUATTARI – EBOOK PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASES (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK E-BOOKS, MEDICINE, PEDIATRICS HOUSE OF SPIES – DANIEL SILVA – AUDIOBOOK IN-CAMERA: LIGHT VIDEO WORKSHOP WITH ZACH & JODY MBA IN A BOOK: MASTERING BUSINESS WITH ATTITUDE – AUDIOBOOK SUPERFREAKONOMICS: GLOBAL COOLING, PATRIOTIC PROSTITUTES, AND WHY SUICIDE BOMBERS SHOULD BUY LIFE INSURANCE 10% HAPPIER: HOW I TAMED THE VOICE IN MY HEAD – DAN HARRIS – AUDIOBOOK GENERAL, ORGANIC, AND BIOCHEMISTRY (9TH EDITION) – EBOOK INTERMEDIATE ACCOUNTING (11TH CANADIAN EDITION) – VOLUME I AND II – EBOOK ANATOMY: A PHOTOGRAPHIC ATLAS (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK MANAGEMENT AND COST ACCOUNTING (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK FUNDAMENTALS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK GAUGE THEORIES IN PARTICLE PHYSICS: A PRACTICAL INTRODUCTION, VOLUME 1 AND 2 (4TH EDITION) PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS (9TH EDITION) GLOBAL – EBOOK BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY (STANDARD 9TH EDITION) – EBOOK CHESLEY’S HYPERTENSIVE DISORDERS IN PREGNANCY (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK GRAY’S ATLAS OF ANATOMY (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK LANGE Q&A PSYCHIATRY (11TH EDITION) – EBOOK E-BOOKS, MEDICINE, PSYCHOLOGY, TEXTBOOKS CLINICAL CASES IN ENDODONTICS – EBOOK THE WASHINGTON MANUAL OF SURGERY (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK CELL BIOLOGY (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK BRUNNER AND SUDDARTH’S TEXTBOOK OF MEDICAL-SURGICAL NURSING (12TH EDITION) THE WASHINGTON MANUAL OF PEDIATRICS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING: PEDIATRICS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK MANUAL OF CLINICAL PROCEDURES IN DENTISTRY – EBOOK PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY: A CLINICAL APPROACH (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY, IMMUNOTHERAPY AND BIOTHERAPY (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK STEP-UP TO EMERGENCY MEDICINE – EBOOK (IRWIN ECONOMICS) – ECONOMICS (21ST EDITION) – EBOOK FUNDAMENTALS OF INVESTING (13TH EDITION) GLOBAL – EBOOK VIDEO GAME LAW: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT LEGAL AND BUSINESS ISSUES IN THE GAME INDUSTRY – EBOOK MASS MEDIA LAW (20TH EDITION) – EBOOK PRIVATE SECURITY AND THE LAW (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK STATISTICS FOR ECONOMICS, ACCOUNTING AND BUSINESS STUDIES (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK DESCRIPTIVE INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK HOUSE’S DESCRIPTIVE INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK COST ACCOUNTING: FOUNDATIONS AND EVOLUTIONS (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO LEARNING ROBOT PROGRAMMING WITH ROS – EBOOK ENGINEERING MECHANICS: STATICS AND DYNAMICS (14TH EDITION) – EBOOK ADVANCED ACCOUNTING (12TH EDITION) – EBOOK ADVANCED ACCOUNTING (13TH GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK MODERN PHYSICS: FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK GLOBAL ETHICS FOR LEADERSHIP (VOLUME 13) – EBOOK E-BOOKS, MANAGEMENT, POLITICS ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SCHOOL HEALTH – EBOOK CRASH COURSE – RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE OCEANS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS: AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING (5TH EDITION) SI EDITION INTERNATIONAL TRADE: THEORY AND POLICY 11TH EDITION (GLOBAL) – EBOOK ESSENTIALS OF ECONOMICS (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK INDUSTRIAL PROCESS AUTOMATION SYSTEMS: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION – EBOOK CLASSICAL GEOMETRY: EUCLIDEAN, TRANSFORMATIONAL, INVERSIVE, AND PROJECTIVE – EBOOK CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK ELEMENTARY STATISTICS: PICTURING THE WORLD (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK DISCOVERING COMPUTERS & MICROSOFT OFFICE 365 & OFFICE 2016: A FUNDAMENTAL COMBINED APPROACH – EBOOK INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK CHEMISTRY, E-BOOKS, SCIENCE MAYO CLINIC INTERNAL MEDICINE BOARD REVIEW (11TH EDITION) – EBOOK AUGUST’S CONSULTATIONS IN FELINE INTERNAL MEDICINE, VOLUME 7 (1ST EDITION) – EBOOK HUMAN RIGHTS AND PERSONAL SELF-DEFENSE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW – EBOOK THE IRAN-UAE GULF ISLANDS DISPUTE (QUEEN MARY STUDIES IN INTERNATIONAL LAW) – EBOOK ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (12TH GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK A&P, E-BOOKS, TEXTBOOKS ESSENTIALS OF ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (7TH EDITION, GLOBAL) – EBOOK CREASY AND RESNIK’S MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK GEAR CUTTING TOOLS: SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING (2ND EDITION) – EBOOKS HARRISON’S PRINCIPLES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE (19TH EDITION) – PDF – EBOOK OBSTETRICS: NORMAL AND PROBLEM PREGNANCIES (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK FUNDAMENTAL STATISTICS FOR THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK ROCK SLOPE ENGINEERING: CIVIL APPLICATIONS (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK LTE OPTIMIZATION ENGINEERING HANDBOOK – EBOOK AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES FOR ENGINEERING STUDENTS (6TH EDITION) – ETEXTBOOK ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK CHEMICAL ENGINEERING COMPUTATION WITH MATLAB – EBOOK PRECALCULUS (10TH EDITION GLOBAL) – MICHAEL SULLIVAN – ETEXTBOOK THE ART AND CRAFT OF PROBLEM SOLVING (3RD EDITION) BY PAUL ZEITZ – EBOOK FUNDAMENTALS OF GENERAL, ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY (8TH EDITION) IN SI UNITS PRINCIPLES OF GENERAL, ORGANIC, & BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY – ETEXTBOOK VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS 10TH EDITION – ETEXTBOOK PRINCIPLES OF DIRECT DATABASE & DIGITAL MARKETING (5TH EDITION) – ETEXTBOOK PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 4TH EDITION – ETEXTBOOK THE PSYCHOLOGY STUDENT WRITER’S MANUAL AND READER’S GUIDE (THE STUDENT WRITER’S MANUAL: A GUIDE TO READING AND WRITING) 3RD EDITION PROTEIN PHYSICS: A COURSE OF LECTURES (SOFT CONDENSED MATTER, COMPLEX FLUIDS AND BIOMATERIALS) – 2E RENEWABLE ENERGY: PHYSICS, ENGINEERING, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, ECONOMICS AND PLANNING (5TH EDITION) VACUUM AND ULTRAVACUUM: PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY 1ST EDITION – EBOOK E-BOOKS, PHYSICS, SCIENCE CHEESE, 4TH EDITION: CHEMISTRY, PHYSICS AND MICROBIOLOGY CHEMISTRY, E-BOOKS, PHYSICS, SCIENCE, TEXTBOOKS THEORETICAL BASIS FOR NURSING (4TH EDITION) – MCEWEN AND WILLS HOUSE OF SPIES – DANIEL SILVA – EBOOK WHERE GOOD IDEAS COME FROM: THE NATURAL HISTORY OF INNOVATION THE SUMMER BRIDE – CHANCE SISTERS #4 – AUDIOBOOK AUDIOBOOKS, ROMANCE, TEENS STUFF MATTERS: EXPLORING THE MARVELOUS MATERIALS THAT SHAPE OUR MAN-MADE WORLD YES! 50 SCIENTIFICALLY PROVEN WAYS TO BE PERSUASIVE – AUDIOBOOK FOOD SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE – EBOOK ESSENTIAL UNIVERSITY PHYSICS: VOLUME 1 (3RD GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK E-BOOKS, PHYSICS, SCIENCE, TEXTBOOKS FEATURED ENVIRONMENT: THE SCIENCE BEHIND THE STORIES (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK FINITE MATHEMATICS FOR BUSINESS, ECONOMICS, LIFE SCIENCES, AND SOCIAL SCIENCES (13TH EDITION) – EBOOK AUTOCAD 3D MODELING: EXERCISE WORKBOOK – EBOOK COMPUTERS, E-BOOKS, ENGINEERING MASTERING AUTOCAD 2019 AND AUTOCAD LT 2019 – EBOOK FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW AND ECONOMICS – EBOOK PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS, A STREAMLINED APPROACH (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK MODERN PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK COOKING: THE QUINTESSENTIAL ART – EBOOK AN INTRODUCTION TO GROUP WORK PRACTICE (8TH GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK RETAILING MANAGEMENT (9TH EDITION) – EBOOK RETAIL SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK BACTERIAL THERAPY OF CANCER: METHODS AND PROTOCOLS – EBOOK EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: THEORY AND PRACTICE (12TH EDITION) – EBOOK UNDERSTANDING FOOD: PRINCIPLES AND PREPARATION (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK THE ROUTLEDGE INTERNATIONAL HANDBOOK OF LIFELONG LEARNING – EBOOK PRACTICAL RESEARCH: PLANNING AND DESIGN (11TH EDITION) – EBOOK THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE – EBOOK THE HANDBOOK OF THE HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF CRIMINOLOGY – EBOOK ADVANCED MECHANICS OF MATERIALS AND APPLIED ELASTICITY – EBOOK OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS – ESSENTIALS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK THE AMERICAN LAB: AN INSIDER’S HISTORY OF THE LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY – EBOOK FEATURED HEALTH PROMOTION PROGRAMS: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE – EBOOK HEALTH PROMOTION IN SCHOOL: THEORY, PRACTICE AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS – EBOOK DESIGNING WITH THE MIND IN MIND: SIMPLE GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING USER INTERFACE DESIGN GUIDELINES (2ND EDITION) BUSINESS STATISTICS: A FIRST COURSE (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS (12TH EDITION) – EBOOK RESEARCH METHODS FOR BUSINESS: A SKILL BUILDING APPROACH (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK RESEARCH METHODS FOR BUSINESS STUDENTS (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF QUALITATIVE BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT RESEARCH METHODS – EBOOK CULTURE, LEADERSHIP, AND ORGANIZATIONS: THE GLOBE STUDY OF 62 SOCIETIES – EBOOK CULTURE’S CONSEQUENCES: COMPARING VALUES, BEHAVIORS, INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS ACROSS NATIONS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK DIVERSITY IN ORGANIZATIONS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK SERVICES MARKETING: CONCEPTS, STRATEGIES, AND CASES (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK GARTNER’S MACROECONOMICS (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK LIFETIME PHYSICAL FITNESS AND WELLNESS (15TH EDITION) – EBOOK MATERNAL-CHILD NURSING CARE, OPTIMIZING OUTCOMES FOR MOTHERS, CHILDREN AND FAMILIES – EBOOK CAPITALIST FAMILY VALUES: GENDER, WORK, AND CORPORATE CULTURE AT BOEING – EBOOK CULTURE AND THE POLITICS OF WELFARE: EXPLORING SOCIETAL VALUES AND SOCIAL CHOICES – EBOOK PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS FOR ENGINEERING AND THE SCIENCES (9TH EDITION) – SOLUTIONS MANUAL MATERIAL CULTURE IN RUSSIA AND THE USSR: THINGS, VALUES, IDENTITIES- EBOOK FREED SLAVES AND ROMAN IMPERIAL CULTURE: SOCIAL INTEGRATION AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF VALUES – EBOOK LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK MICROECONOMICS: CANADA IN THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT (9TH EDITION) – EBOOK EMERGING GENRES IN NEW MEDIA ENVIRONMENTS – EBOOK MACHINE COMPONENT ANALYSIS WITH MATLAB – EBOOK COMPUTATIONAL ELECTROMAGNETICS WITH MATLAB (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK MATLAB ESSENTIALS: A FIRST COURSE FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS – EBOOK AN ANTHROPOLOGY OF LEARNING: ON NESTED FRICTIONS IN CULTURAL ECOLOGIES – EBOOK HUMAN CULTURE: HIGHLIGHTS OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF FLUID MACHINERY: APPLYING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS AND NUMERICAL OPTIMIZATION – EBOOK KINEMATICS, DYNAMICS, AND DESIGN OF MACHINERY (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK ACCOUNTING FOR GOVERNMENTAL & NONPROFIT ENTITIES (17TH EDITION) – EBOOK GROUP DYNAMICS (7TH EDITION) – TEST BANK, INSTRUCTOR MANUAL, POWERPOINT BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: PROCESS AND PRODUCT (9TH EDITION) – EBOOK ADDICTION AND CHANGE: HOW ADDICTIONS DEVELOP AND ADDICTED PEOPLE RECOVER (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK TOBACCO SMOKING ADDICTION: EPIDEMIOLOGY, GENETICS, MECHANISMS, AND TREATMENT – EBOOK POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID METABOLISM – EBOOK ULRICH & CANALE’S NURSING CARE PLANNING GUIDES: PRIORITIZATION, DELEGATION, AND CRITICAL THINKING (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK A HANDBOOK TO THE RECEPTION OF CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY – EBOOK CONCEPTS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES (11TH EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK THROUGH THE LENS OF ANTHROPOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN EVOLUTION AND CULTURE (2ND EDITION) THROUGH THE LENS OF ANTHROPOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN EVOLUTION AND CULTURE – EBOOK INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY: AN ATOMS FIRST APPROACH – BURDGE/DRIESSEN – EBOOK PUBLIC RELATIONS: THE PROFESSION AND THE PRACTICE (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS (13TH GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIAL UNIVERSITY PHYSICS: VOLUME 2 (3RD GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIAL UNIVERSITY PHYSICS (3RD EDITION) – VOLUME 1 & 2 – EBOOK LEADERSHIP AND SCHOOL QUALITY (RESEARCH AND THEORY IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION) – EBOOK CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY: AN APPLIED PERSPECTIVE (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIAL ENVIRONMENT: THE SCIENCE BEHIND THE STORIES (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK PRACTITIONERS’ GUIDE TO HUMAN RIGHTS LAW IN ARMED CONFLICT – EBOOK HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT: SHIFTING PARADIGMS IN ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION: THEORY, RESEARCH, AND PRACTICE (9TH EDITION) – EBOOK GROUP DYNAMICS FOR TEAMS (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK ROCK DYNAMICS: FROM RESEARCH TO ENGINEERING – EBOOK HEALTH ASSESSMENT FOR NURSING PRACTICE (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK GROUP DYNAMICS (7TH EDITION) – DONELSON FORSYTH – EBOOK ESSENTIALS OF LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK CANADIAN ESSENTIALS OF NURSING RESEARCH (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK CARBON NANOMATERIALS FOR BIOIMAGING, BIOANALYSIS, AND THERAPY – EBOOK READING BETWEEN THE SIGNS: INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION FOR SIGN LANGUAGE INTERPRETERS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK HANDBOOK OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS: THEORY, RESEARCH, AND TREATMENT (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK TRANSFORMATIONS: WOMEN, GENDER AND PSYCHOLOGY (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK GENDERED JOURNEYS: WOMEN, MIGRATION AND FEMINIST PSYCHOLOGY – EBOOK ECONOMICS OF DEVELOPMENT (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY INEQUALITY & CAPITALISM: PIKETTY, MARX AND BEYOND – EBOOK MECHANICAL VENTILATION IN THE CRITICALLY ILL OBESE PATIENT – EBOOK MOSBY’S RESPIRATORY CARE EQUIPMENT (10TH EDITION) – EBOOK POLYOXOMETALATES: PROPERTIES, STRUCTURE AND SYNTHESIS – EBOOK THE ROUTLEDGE INTERNATIONAL HANDBOOK OF LEARNING – EBOOK ADOLESCENT RATIONALITY AND DEVELOPMENT (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK THE WILEY HANDBOOK OF EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND EDUCATION – EBOOK THE WILEY HANDBOOK OF ACTION RESEARCH IN EDUCATION – EBOOK THE WILEY HANDBOOK OF FAMILY, SCHOOL, AND COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATION – EBOOK HANDBOOK OF DISTANCE EDUCATION (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK PRINCIPLES OF RISK MANAGEMENT AND INSURANCE (13TH GLOBAL EDITION) – EBOOK HANDBOOK OF LOCAL ANESTHESIA (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIALS OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK THE WILEY HANDBOOK OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING – EBOOK TEXAS POLITICS TODAY – 2017-2018 (18TH EDITION) – TESTBANK, POWERPOINT, INSTRUCTOR MANUAL RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY: ANATOMY, TECHNIQUE, AND CLINICAL APPLICATION – EBOOK THE LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCE (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK FITZPATRICK’S DERMATOLOGY (9TH EDITION) – 2-VOLUME SET – EBOOK MASTERCLASS: PENN & TELLER TEACH THE ART OF MAGIC – VIDEO COURSE ASTROBIOLOGY: UNDERSTANDING LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE – EBOOK THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF DIPLOMACY – EBOOK ASTROBIOLOGY: AN EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH – EBOOK ASTROBIOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION – EBOOK ASTROBIOLOGY: FROM THE ORIGINS OF LIFE TO THE SEARCH FOR EXTRATERRESTRIAL INTELLIGENCE – EBOOK HANDBOOK OF ASTROBIOLOGY – EBOOK 5G FOR THE CONNECTED WORLD – EBOOK FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING: AN INTERNATIONAL APPROACH – EBOOK CONCEPTUAL PHYSICS (12TH EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK NEUROEPIDEMIOLOGY: FROM PRINCIPLES TO PRACTICE – EBOOK STROKE: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS, AND MANAGEMENT (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK DIABETES AND EXERCISE: FROM PATHOPHYSIOLOGY TO CLINICAL IMPLEMENTATION (2ND EDITION) – (CONTEMPORARY DIABETES) – EBOOK LIVER PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: THERAPIES AND ANTIOXIDANTS – EBOOK PEDIATRIC TRAUMA: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY FOR PHARMACY AND ALLIED HEALTH – EBOOK INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: COMPETENCE AND CONTEXTS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK CFA PROGRAM CURRICULUM 2019 LEVEL I VOLUMES 1-6 – EBOOK SCHOOL PUBLIC RELATIONS FOR STUDENT SUCCESS – EBOOK DEFINING CITIZENSHIP IN ARCHAIC GREECE – EBOOK TALL BUILDING DESIGN: STEEL, CONCRETE, AND COMPOSITE SYSTEMS – EBOOK PHARMACOLOGY: A PATIENT-CENTERED NURSING PROCESS APPROACH (8TH EDITION) – EBOOK MEDICAL-SURGICAL NURSING: CRITICAL THINKING FOR PERSON-CENTRED CARE – VOLUME 1 (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK FOCUS ON ADULT HEALTH: MEDICAL-SURGICAL NURSING (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIALS OF TAXATION: INDIVIDUALS AND BUSINESS ENTITIES (22ND EDITION) – EBOOK AUTOMATED SYSTEMS IN THE AVIATION AND AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES – EBOOK AVIATION AND HUMAN FACTORS: HOW TO INCORPORATE HUMAN FACTORS INTO THE FIELD – EBOOK AIRLINE ECONOMICS IN ASIA – ADVANCES IN AIRLINE ECONOMICS (VOLUME 7) – EBOOK AIRCRAFT LEASING AND FINANCING: TOOLS FOR SUCCESS IN INTERNATIONAL AIRCRAFT ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT – EBOOK HANDBOOK OF RESEARCH ON CONSUMPTION, MEDIA, AND POPULAR CULTURE IN THE GLOBAL AGE – EBOOK INDIRECT CARE HANDBOOK FOR ADVANCED NURSING ROLES – EBOOK THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF NURSE LEADERS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK ESSENTIALS OF MEDICAL GENETICS FOR NURSING AND HEALTH PROFESSIONALS – EBOOK APPLICATION OF NURSING INFORMATICS: COMPETENCIES, SKILLS, AND DECISION-MAKING – EBOOK PROCEDURES AND PATIENT CARE FOR THE PHYSICAL THERAPIST ASSISTANT – EBOOK GLOBAL BRANDING: BREAKTHROUGHS IN RESEARCH AND PRACTICE, 2 VOLUME – EBOOK INTEGRATED SCIENCE (7TH EDITION) – EBOOK MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTANT’S COMPASS: RESEARCH GENESIS AND DEVELOPMENT – EBOOK DIAGNOSTIC GYNECOLOGIC AND OBSTETRIC PATHOLOGY (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK BLACK’S MEDICAL DICTIONARY (43RD EDITION) – EBOOK BLACK’S VETERINARY DICTIONARY (22ND EDITION) – EBOOK USMLE STEP 2 CK LECTURE NOTES 2019: SURGERY – (KAPLAN TEST PREP BOOK 5) USMLE STEP 2 CK LECTURE NOTES 2019: PEDIATRICS (KAPLAN TEST PREP BOOK 3) – PDF ADVANCES IN MARINE BIOLOGY, VOLUME 82 – PDF FOUNDATIONS OF FINANCIAL MARKETS AND INSTITUTIONS (4TH EDITION) – INTERNATIONAL EDITION – EBOOK THE SHADOW BANKING SYSTEM: CREATING TRANSPARENCY IN THE FINANCIAL MARKETS – EBOOK FINANCIAL MARKETS, SME FINANCING AND EMERGING ECONOMIES – EBOOK EUROPEAN PSYCHIATRIC/MENTAL HEALTH NURSING IN THE 21ST CENTURY: A PERSON-CENTRED EVIDENCE-BASED APPROACH (PRINCIPLES OF SPECIALTY NURSING) – EBOOK PSYCHIATRIC & MENTAL HEALTH NURSING FOR CANADIAN PRACTICE – EBOOK STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS: IN THEORY AND PRACTICE – EBOOK CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF EMOTION – YANA SUCHY – EBOOK INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN DISEASE (6TH EDITION) – EBOOK FINANCIAL MARKETS AND INSTITUTIONS (11TH EDITION) – JEFF MADURA – EBOOK STEEL STRUCTURES: PRACTICAL DESIGN STUDIES (4TH EDITION) – EBOOK HANDBOOK OF STRUCTURAL STEEL CONNECTION DESIGN AND DETAILS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF PLATED STRUCTURES (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF MODERN STEEL RAILWAY BRIDGES (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK STEEL DESIGN (5TH EDITION) – SEGUI – EBOOK ADVANCED STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS WITH MATLAB®- EBOOK INTRODUCTION TO AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK FRACTOGRAPHY AND FAILURE ANALYSIS – EBOOK AN ECONOMETRIC MODEL OF THE US ECONOMY: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN 56 EQUATIONS – EBOOK STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK MATRIX METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS – EBOOK STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL CONSTRUCTIONS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH – PDF DICTIONARY OF INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW – EBOOK HOPKINS’ NONPROFIT LAW DICTIONARY – EBOOK ABCS OF ARBITRAGE: TAX RULES FOR INVESTMENT OF BOND PROCEEDS BY MUNICIPALITIES (2018 EDITION) – EBOOK COMPANY ACCOUNTING (11TH EDITION) – EBOOK MCAT BIOCHEMISTRY REVIEW 2019-2020 – EBOOK CANCER: PRINCIPLES & PRACTICE OF ONCOLOGY: PRIMER OF THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF CANCER (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK INTRODUCTION TO JAVA PROGRAMMING, AP VERSION – EBOOK STATISTICS (13TH EDITION) – GLOBAL – EBOOK MEDICAL EMERGENCIES IN DENTAL PRACTICE – EBOOK CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT: PERCEPTIONS, PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES AND COPING STRATEGIES – EBOOK PHYSICIAN’S GUIDE: UNDERSTANDING AND WORKING WITH INTEGRATED CASE MANAGERS – EBOOK STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (9TH EDITION) – SOLUTIONS MANUAL + POWERPOINT ETC SHERLOCK’S DISEASES OF THE LIVER AND BILIARY SYSTEM (13TH EDITION) – EBOOK DICTIONARY OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW – EBOOK PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR FACILITY CONSTRUCTIONS: A GUIDE FOR ENGINEERS AND ARCHITECTS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK AUDITING, ASSURANCE SERVICES, AND FORENSICS: A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH – EBOOK INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS (10TH EDITION) – CHARLES HILL – EBOOK PROBLEM SOLVING WITH C++ (9TH EDITION) – WALTER SAVITCH – EBOOK FUNDAMENTALS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (3RD EDITION) – INTERNATIONAL EDITION – EBOOK SKILLS MANAGEMENT: NEW APPLICATIONS, NEW QUESTIONS – EBOOK E-BOOKS, HRM, MANAGEMENT WILEY INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION OF IFRS STANDARDS – 2018 – EBOOK PRINCIPLES OF AUDITING & OTHER ASSURANCE SERVICES (20TH EDITION) – EBOOK HANDBOOK OF PLANT DISEASE IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT – EBOOK PIG DISEASE IDENTIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS GUIDE – EBOOK DISEASE GENE IDENTIFICATION: METHODS AND PROTOCOLS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK FEATURED ECONOMICS TODAY: THE MACRO VIEW (18TH EDITION) – EBOOK HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (13TH EDITION) – EBOOK SURGICAL EXPOSURES IN ORTHOPAEDICS: THE ANATOMIC APPROACH (5TH EDITION) – EBOOK THE ROUTLEDGE COMPANION TO CONSUMER BEHAVIOR – EBOOK PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR FACILITY CONSTRUCTIONS: A GUIDE FOR ENGINEERS AND ARCHITECTS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK VALUE MANAGEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK HANDBOOK OF INSULIN THERAPIES – EBOOK STATISTICAL ASPECTS OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF FOODS (3RD EDITION) – EBOOK THE RUBBER BRAIN: A TOOLKIT FOR OPTIMISING YOUR STUDY, WORK, AND LIFE! – EBOOK CLOUD COMPUTING DESIGN PATTERNS – EBOOK ABSOLUTE JAVA (6TH EDITION) – GLOBAL EDITION – EBOOK ELEMENTARY NUMBER THEORY WITH PROGRAMMING – EBOOK DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION PROGRAMMING: MECHANISMS, PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (2ND EDITION) – EBOOK PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS AND ECONOMICS: IMAGE, CONTEXT AND
submitted by jaylenholt to ebookleaksdownload [link] [comments]

Unable to move claimed BSV from ElectrumSV wallet (imported privkey)

Hi All,
First post on Reddit, but a long time reader and a bitcoin novice, despite having coins since ~2014!
I finally got around to claiming my BSV from my BCH. At the time of the fork I know what my balance of BCH was and therefore what I expect my BSV to be (1:1).
I can see this value in my ElectrumSV wallet after importing my private key for my BCH address. My BCH wallet is BitCoinABC and is fully in sync. However, when I try and send and BSV from my ElectrumSV wallet to a recipient, I get the 'Conflicts with one already in the server's mempool' error (\n\n258: txn-mempool-conflict).
I should say that I initially claimed these coins approx. 30 hours ago now and have successfully exchanged a small amount of BCH to BSV and sent it to the wallet that has the claimed coins in it. The small transfer is now also stuck in that wallet.
Research tells me I probably need to make a raw transaction to create a double spend, but this is beyond my current ability... either that or wait for the block height to catch up, which I would have thought may have have happened by now, looking at the block height differences between BCH & BSV?
So any help or pointers would be appreciated...
TIA


++EDIT++
Thanks to Deminero30 this has been resolved and the BSV recovered to a functional address!
submitted by staffnjb to bitcoincashSV [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: Storage rent

We’ve designed Ergo with long-term economic sustainability in mind, and storage rent is one of the ways we’re ensuring miners stay profitable well into the future. One community member, Robert, describes this function as ‘on-chain garbage collection’ that reduces the problem of blockchain bloat – and even makes it profitable.
The 2020 block reward reduction will probably be the most important halving Bitcoin ever experiences. This is the point where the narrative of programmatic scarcity and digital gold will truly be proven, in the context of the sharpest economic downturn in living memory. In previous halvings, Bitcoin has still been in its infancy, a niche experiment. Future halvings will confirm the principle. But this one is the watershed.
Looking ahead, though, what happens in 20 or 30 years, when block rewards have fallen so far that miners have to rely on tx fees and potentially other sources of revenue? Will Bitcoin be sustainable? What will be the impact on the ecosystem?
The simple answer is that we don’t know.
Mining rewards are a key feature in maintaining the security of proof-of-work blockchains like Bitcoin and Ergo. And so, while we have deliberately kept many of Bitcoin’s tried and tested features, we have updated this one to give miners a boost when block rewards have fallen to zero.

Lost coins

Digital scarcity is an important feature of Ergo. Like Bitcoin, ERG are designed to be a finite resource and long-term store of value. We do not agree with the principle of infinite inflation.
And yet, this has to be balanced against the needs to pay miners to secure the blockchain and process transactions. Without adequate compensation for miners, there is no viable blockchain at all. Ergo approaches this by slowly recycling lost coins, in a feature we call ‘Storage rent’.
Studies suggest that as many as 4 million BTC may have been lost forever. These are coins that were mined in the early days of Bitcoin and stored on hard drives that were subsequently thrown away or destroyed because the owners forgot about them or thought they were worthless, as well as coins in addresses for which the private keys have been lost. (And, of course, there’s Satoshi’s estimated holdings of 1 million BTC, which may never move.)
Where coins have genuinely been permanently taken out of circulation in this way, it makes sense to have a mechanism to recover them and put them back into the blockchain economy. That way, we can preserve digital scarcity without unnecessarily accelerating it. In other words, by attempting to stick to the intended algorithmic supply for any given point in time.
Ergo’s halving schedule is faster than Bitcoin’s. Block rewards start at 75 ERG, and decrease steadily after the first two years. There is no ‘long tail’ of emission, and after eight years block rewards will fall to zero. After that, total supply will be fixed. The number of ERG in existence will never be more than 97,739,925.

Storage fees

From that point, however, miners will need further incentives to secure the network. Miners have ongoing costs in terms of bandwidth and storage, and in cases where coins are simply left for years, there is typically no charge for reflecting the value of securing them. The tx fee that is paid up-front in Bitcoin is the only charge ever made for storing those coins.
In Ergo, in addition to transaction fees, miners will also be able to collect storage rent fees on UTXOs that have not been moved for four years or more.
Fees will be deducted slowly, over time – the unmoved UTXOs will not simply be appropriated by miners. Anyone who wants to avoid this simply needs to move their balances once every four years, which is not an onerous requirement for helping incentivise miners and avoiding the deflationary consequences of lost coins. You can read more about how fees will be levied in this paper.
In this way, Ergo seeks to ensure a balance between maintaining digital scarcity, on the one hand, and giving miners long-term incentives to secure the blockchain, on the other – long past the point where new coins have ceased to be released.
submitted by eleanorcwhite to btc [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: Storage rent

We’ve designed Ergo with long-term economic sustainability in mind, and storage rent is one of the ways we’re ensuring miners stay profitable well into the future. One community member, Robert, describes this function as ‘on-chain garbage collection’ that reduces the problem of blockchain bloat – and even makes it profitable.
The 2020 block reward reduction will probably be the most important halving Bitcoin ever experiences. This is the point where the narrative of programmatic scarcity and digital gold will truly be proven, in the context of the sharpest economic downturn in living memory. In previous halvings, Bitcoin has still been in its infancy, a niche experiment. Future halvings will confirm the principle. But this one is the watershed.
Looking ahead, though, what happens in 20 or 30 years, when block rewards have fallen so far that miners have to rely on tx fees and potentially other sources of revenue? Will Bitcoin be sustainable? What will be the impact on the ecosystem?
The simple answer is that we don’t know.
Mining rewards are a key feature in maintaining the security of proof-of-work blockchains like Bitcoin and Ergo. And so, while we have deliberately kept many of Bitcoin’s tried and tested features, we have updated this one to give miners a boost when block rewards have fallen to zero.
Lost coins
Digital scarcity is an important feature of Ergo. Like Bitcoin, ERG are designed to be a finite resource and long-term store of value. We do not agree with the principle of infinite inflation.
And yet, this has to be balanced against the needs to pay miners to secure the blockchain and process transactions. Without adequate compensation for miners, there is no viable blockchain at all. Ergo approaches this by slowly recycling lost coins, in a feature we call ‘Storage rent’.
Studies suggest that as many as 4 million BTC may have been lost forever. These are coins that were mined in the early days of Bitcoin and stored on hard drives that were subsequently thrown away or destroyed because the owners forgot about them or thought they were worthless, as well as coins in addresses for which the private keys have been lost. (And, of course, there’s Satoshi’s estimated holdings of 1 million BTC, which may never move.)
Where coins have genuinely been permanently taken out of circulation in this way, it makes sense to have a mechanism to recover them and put them back into the blockchain economy. That way, we can preserve digital scarcity without unnecessarily accelerating it. In other words, by attempting to stick to the intended algorithmic supply for any given point in time.
Ergo’s halving schedule is faster than Bitcoin’s. Block rewards start at 75 ERG, and decrease steadily after the first two years. There is no ‘long tail’ of emission, and after eight years block rewards will fall to zero. After that, total supply will be fixed. The number of ERG in existence will never be more than 97,739,925.
Storage fees
From that point, however, miners will need further incentives to secure the network. Miners have ongoing costs in terms of bandwidth and storage, and in cases where coins are simply left for years, there is typically no charge for reflecting the value of securing them. The tx fee that is paid up-front in Bitcoin is the only charge ever made for storing those coins.
In Ergo, in addition to transaction fees, miners will also be able to collect storage rent fees on UTXOs that have not been moved for four years or more.
Fees will be deducted slowly, over time – the unmoved UTXOs will not simply be appropriated by miners. Anyone who wants to avoid this simply needs to move their balances once every four years, which is not an onerous requirement for helping incentivise miners and avoiding the deflationary consequences of lost coins. You can read more about how fees will be levied in this paper.
In this way, Ergo seeks to ensure a balance between maintaining digital scarcity, on the one hand, and giving miners long-term incentives to secure the blockchain, on the other – long past the point where new coins have ceased to be released.
submitted by Guilty_Pea to CryptoMarkets [link] [comments]

What Is Bitcoin Private Key: Beginner’s Guide

What Is Bitcoin Private Key: Beginner’s Guide
Most of the people in this sub probably already know what the Bitcoin private key is and how it works, but there are many newcomers who do not fully understand all the technical aspects of it. I hope you guys will find it useful.

Bitcoin Private Keys: The Basics

Let’s start with some main principles.
  • A private key is functionally similar to a password to your email account. Unlike your email address, you never share it.
  • You need your private key to be able to receive the crypto someone sends you and to have access to your funds.
  • The BTC network does not store your private keys, they are generated and stored by the wallet software. There are different types of wallets.
IMPORTANT: The private key concept does not apply exclusively to Bitcoin. Other cryptocurrencies use it too.
Now, let’s see how a private key looks and works.

Bitcoin Private Key Definition

Bitcoin private key is an alphanumeric piece of code. It includes letters and numbers, just like your public address.
However, while a public address is like your plastic card number, a private key is like your CVC. You know, those secret three digits on the back of a card?
A private address is created in a random manner when you get a cryptocurrency wallet. The possibility of creating two identical private keys is almost zero, due to the sophisticated encryption algorithm, we apply for the purpose.
In the BTC network, a private key contains 256 symbols, as we obtain it using the SHA256 encryption algorithm. This function always returns 256 symbols, no matter the input.

Bitcoin private key in various formats, including WIF.

Wallet Import Format (WIF)

Using such a long string of code is inconvenient, so a private key is often presented in WIF (Wallet Import Format). It’s a shortened version that includes only 51 characters (numbers from 0 to 9 and letters in the range of A-F) and begins with 5.
Here is a Bitcoin private key example in WIF:
5Kb8kLf9zgWQnogidDA76MzPL6TsZZY36hWXMssSzNydYXYB9KF
WIF has a few advantages over a full BTC private key version. As we have said, it’s shorter and more convenient to use. Also, it contains special pieces of code that serve to check the address for typos and correct them automatically.
WIF associates with only one private key and can be easily converted back into it, using an established algorithm.

Encrypting Private Keys

If a key looks like WIF but starts with 6, it is an encrypted version of a private key. People encrypt keys to ensure an extra layer of protection. To obtain such a string of code, we apply another algorithm. To decode (decrypt) the key we need to enter the password that we set when we were encrypting it.

How Bitcoin Private Key Works

You probably know Bitcoin as a digital payment system. To explain how it works, it would be better to compare it to a web-messenger, with massages transferring value. These ‘value messages’ are BTC transactions.
And what role a private key plays in sending these financial messages?
Let’s take a look at a real-life example.

https://preview.redd.it/fgtn8h63veu41.png?width=1261&format=png&auto=webp&s=9855f9aba70ebe7ca1f02b32c160ae78b2b42400

Using Private And Public Keys For a Transaction

Imagine you are sending 1 BTC to your friend Bill. You create a transaction and indicate yourself as the sender and Bill as the receiver of this amount. Then, you will broadcast the transaction to make the Bitcoin network aware of it.
  1. You start by choosing a private key. Using a special encryption algorithm, you derive a public key from it. You send this public key to Bill.
  2. You create a message for Bill and sign it with your digital signature. To obtain it, you pass your private key through a special encryption algorithm and attach the resulting code to the message. Every signature is unique, and you can use the same private address to produce an infinite number of them.
  3. Bill receives your message, public key, and signature and passes it through a signature algorithm. If it’s the message you sent, the algorithm returns ok.
Why we need a digital signature in the first place? There are three reasons. First, it tells the recipient that the message is from the sender he knows. Second, a digital signature makes it impossible for the sender to deny he sent the message. Third, it confirms that no one has altered the message in transit.
Unlike a traditional signature, a digital one cannot be forged. To produce it, you have to possess a secret private key.
https://preview.redd.it/k8n0vcg4veu41.png?width=624&format=png&auto=webp&s=9ab6c0bc25c0a638c4d3bfdbf86056f5462aa7d0

Why Keeping Your Private Key Secret Is Important

As we have mentioned, anyone in possession of your private key can steal your funds anytime.
If your wicked colleague Alice gets your private key (because you carelessly left your paper wallet on your desk), she can use it to create a digital signature. She can then use that signature to sign a transaction that will look like yours for the network. For instance, Alice can send all your crypto to another address. You will never be able to cancel this transaction and you are highly unlikely to know that she made it.
For this reason, you should be very careful with your private keys. Never send it to anyone using a messenger, or an email client, or a social media channel. Don’t share photographs of your private key. Never store a private key in a Google Doc file.
Please note that some desktop wallet apps store your private key in a standard directory on your hard drive. This place is a honeypot for hackers who know you are a cryptocurrency user. That’s why it’s extremely important to have up-to-date anti-virus software installed on your device.
https://preview.redd.it/bg2zd50aveu41.png?width=723&format=png&auto=webp&s=0e692f5c73c7c68ea854342b7fbeaf6aaa62f71f
Also, you may encrypt this wallet file to make it immune to malware. Many wallet apps provide this option. You will have to set a password to decrypt the private key, and the hacker will have to break this password to do it. If the password is strong, it will be a really difficult and time-consuming task.

Where To Store Private Keys: Mobile, Desktop And Hardware Wallets

As we have mentioned, the Bitcoin network does not store these keys. Instead, wallet services do it.

Mobile Wallets

Some of them allow you to keep and protect your private key, others do it automatically, applying various safety measures like 2FA or encryption. Note that nobody is responsible for it, your bitcoins will be gone if the service is hacked.

Desktop Wallets

Desktop wallets may be a good option. They provide a BTC public and private keys in the format of a file that you can download and import. You can protect this file with a strong password and safely store it on a hard drive. Don’t forget about safe storage for this drive, too. For instance, use a bank vault for this purpose.

Cold (Hardware) Wallets

Hardware wallets are the safest ones. They are small USB devices designed to store your funds and private keys offline, away from anyone who could steal them. For this very reason, hardware (or cold) wallets are impossible to hack. If you accidentally lose, damage or destroy such a device, you can recover your BTC and private keys using a backup phrase. The best-selling models of hardware wallets are Tresor and Ledger Nano S, supporting several popular coins.

https://preview.redd.it/7wlozgvcveu41.png?width=803&format=png&auto=webp&s=9c438a47a47f6bb2ba5dbd4fdfba924e8c960f47

Paper Wallets

These wallets are sheets of paper with BTC private keys and public address printed on them. Paper wallets look pretty basic and not very innovational, but it’s a safe way to store your BTC-related sensitive data. The main reason is that they are not connected to the Internet and thus are unreachable for malware attacks. This format is also immune to many mishaps that can affect electronic devices. To create a paper wallet you use a special web service like WalletGenerator.

P.S. Check out our blog if you are interested in more articles on crypto and finance
submitted by EX-SCUDO to btc [link] [comments]

What Is Bitcoin Private Key: Beginner’s Guide

What Is Bitcoin Private Key: Beginner’s Guide
Most of the people in this sub probably already know what the Bitcoin private key is and how it works, but there are many newcomers who do not fully understand all the technical aspects of it. I hope you guys will find this guide useful.

Bitcoin Private Keys: The Basics

Let’s start with some main principles.
  • A private key is functionally similar to a password to your email account.
  • You need your private key to be able to receive the crypto someone sends you and to have access to your funds.
  • The BTC network does not store your private keys, they are generated and stored by the wallet software. There are different types of wallets.
Also, it is important to note that the private key concept does not apply exclusively to Bitcoin. Other cryptocurrencies use it too.
Now, let’s see how a private key looks and works.

Bitcoin Private Key Definition

Bitcoin private key is an alphanumeric piece of code. It includes letters and numbers, just like your public address.
However, while a public address is like your plastic card number, a private key is like your CVC. You know, those secret three digits on the back of a card?
A private address is created in a random manner when you get a cryptocurrency wallet. The possibility of creating two identical private keys is almost zero, due to the sophisticated encryption algorithm, we apply for the purpose.
In the BTC network, a private key contains 256 symbols, as we obtain it using the SHA256 encryption algorithm. This function always returns 256 symbols, no matter the input.
Bitcoin private key in various formats, including WIF.

Wallet Import Format (WIF)

Using such a long string of code is inconvenient, so a private key is often presented in WIF (Wallet Import Format). It’s a shortened version that includes only 51 characters (numbers from 0 to 9 and letters in the range of A-F) and begins with 5.
Here is a Bitcoin private key example in WIF:
5Kb8kLf9zgWQnogidDA76MzPL6TsZZY36hWXMssSzNydYXYB9KF
WIF has a few advantages over a full BTC private key version. As we have said, it’s shorter and more convenient to use. Also, it contains special pieces of code that serve to check the address for typos and correct them automatically.
WIF associates with only one private key and can be easily converted back into it, using an established algorithm.

Encrypting Private Keys

If a key looks like WIF but starts with 6, it is an encrypted version of a private key. People encrypt keys to ensure an extra layer of protection. To obtain such a string of code, we apply another algorithm. To decode (decrypt) the key we need to enter the password that we set when we were encrypting it.

How Bitcoin Private Key Works

You probably know Bitcoin as a digital payment system. To explain how it works, it would be better to compare it to a web-messenger, with massages transferring value. These ‘value messages’ are BTC transactions.
And what role a private key plays in sending these financial messages?
Let’s take a look at a real-life example.
https://preview.redd.it/lt1gwme8seu41.png?width=1261&format=png&auto=webp&s=87137c6ad2566affef82a6513090022f7dbb931e

Using Private And Public Keys For a Transaction

Imagine you are sending 1 BTC to your friend Bill. You create a transaction and indicate yourself as the sender and Bill as the receiver of this amount. Then, you will broadcast the transaction to make the Bitcoin network aware of it.
  1. You start by choosing a private key. Using a special encryption algorithm, you derive a public key from it. You send this public key to Bill.
  2. You create a message for Bill and sign it with your digital signature. To obtain it, you pass your private key through a special encryption algorithm and attach the resulting code to the message. Every signature is unique, and you can use the same private address to produce an infinite number of them.
  3. Bill receives your message, public key, and signature and passes it through a signature algorithm. If it’s the message you sent, the algorithm returns ok.
Why we need a digital signature in the first place? There are three reasons. First, it tells the recipient that the message is from the sender he knows. Second, a digital signature makes it impossible for the sender to deny he sent the message. Third, it confirms that no one has altered the message in transit.
Unlike a traditional signature, a digital one cannot be forged. To produce it, you have to possess a secret private key.

https://preview.redd.it/8ta8ds3jseu41.png?width=624&format=png&auto=webp&s=79186fecbe58ecd8a393f644ad35e590361fbe86

Why Keeping Your Private Key Secret Is Important

As we have mentioned, anyone in possession of your private key can steal your funds anytime.
If your wicked colleague Alice gets your private key (because you carelessly left your paper wallet on your desk), she can use it to create a digital signature. She can then use that signature to sign a transaction that will look like yours for the network. For instance, Alice can send all your crypto to another address. You will never be able to cancel this transaction and you are highly unlikely to know that she made it.
For this reason, you should be very careful with your private keys. Never send it to anyone using a messenger, or an email client, or a social media channel. Don’t share photographs of your private key. Never store a private key in a Google Doc file.
Please note that some desktop wallet apps store your private key in a standard directory on your hard drive. This place is a honeypot for hackers who know you are a cryptocurrency user. That’s why it’s extremely important to have up-to-date anti-virus software installed on your device.
https://preview.redd.it/187j0ucmseu41.png?width=723&format=png&auto=webp&s=c9bccdd66ffabde2e623846c7e95930d5e62a625
Also, you may encrypt this wallet file to make it immune to malware. Many wallet apps provide this option. You will have to set a password to decrypt the private key, and the hacker will have to break this password to do it. If the password is strong, it will be a really difficult and time-consuming task.

Where To Store Private Keys: Mobile, Desktop And Hardware Wallets

As we have mentioned, the Bitcoin network does not store these keys. Instead, wallet services do it.

Mobile Wallets

Some of them allow you to keep and protect your private key, others do it automatically, applying various safety measures like 2FA or encryption. Note that nobody is responsible for it, your bitcoins will be gone if the service is hacked.

Desktop Wallets

Desktop wallets may be a good option. They provide a BTC public and private keys in the format of a file that you can download and import. You can protect this file with a strong password and safely store it on a hard drive. Don’t forget about safe storage for this drive, too. For instance, use a bank vault for this purpose.

Cold (Hardware) Wallets

Hardware wallets are the safest ones. They are small USB devices designed to store your funds and private keys offline, away from anyone who could steal them. For this very reason, hardware (or cold) wallets are impossible to hack. If you accidentally lose, damage or destroy such a device, you can recover your BTC and private keys using a backup phrase. The best-selling models of hardware wallets are Tresor and Ledger Nano S, supporting several popular coins.

https://preview.redd.it/jmpyl3yoseu41.png?width=803&format=png&auto=webp&s=ef70101a853eaaedea8d0fb5d2d1690cce16c989

Paper Wallets

These wallets are sheets of paper with BTC private keys and public address printed on them. Paper wallets look pretty basic and not very innovational, but it’s a safe way to store your BTC-related sensitive data. The main reason is that they are not connected to the Internet and thus are unreachable for malware attacks. This format is also immune to many mishaps that can affect electronic devices. To create a paper wallet you use a special web service like WalletGenerator.

P.S. Check out our blog if you are interested in more articles on crypto and finance
submitted by EX-SCUDO to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: Storage rent

We’ve designed Ergo with long-term economic sustainability in mind, and storage rent is one of the ways we’re ensuring miners stay profitable well into the future. One community member, Robert, describes this function as ‘on-chain garbage collection’ that reduces the problem of blockchain bloat – and even makes it profitable.
The 2020 block reward reduction will probably be the most important halving Bitcoin ever experiences. This is the point where the narrative of programmatic scarcity and digital gold will truly be proven, in the context of the sharpest economic downturn in living memory. In previous halvings, Bitcoin has still been in its infancy, a niche experiment. Future halvings will confirm the principle. But this one is the watershed.
Looking ahead, though, what happens in 20 or 30 years, when block rewards have fallen so far that miners have to rely on tx fees and potentially other sources of revenue? Will Bitcoin be sustainable? What will be the impact on the ecosystem?
The simple answer is that we don’t know.
Mining rewards are a key feature in maintaining the security of proof-of-work blockchains like Bitcoin and Ergo. And so, while we have deliberately kept many of Bitcoin’s tried and tested features, we have updated this one to give miners a boost when block rewards have fallen to zero.
Lost coins
Digital scarcity is an important feature of Ergo. Like Bitcoin, ERG are designed to be a finite resource and long-term store of value. We do not agree with the principle of infinite inflation.
And yet, this has to be balanced against the needs to pay miners to secure the blockchain and process transactions. Without adequate compensation for miners, there is no viable blockchain at all. Ergo approaches this by slowly recycling lost coins, in a feature we call ‘Storage rent’.
Studies suggest that as many as 4 million BTC may have been lost forever. These are coins that were mined in the early days of Bitcoin and stored on hard drives that were subsequently thrown away or destroyed because the owners forgot about them or thought they were worthless, as well as coins in addresses for which the private keys have been lost. (And, of course, there’s Satoshi’s estimated holdings of 1 million BTC, which may never move.)
Where coins have genuinely been permanently taken out of circulation in this way, it makes sense to have a mechanism to recover them and put them back into the blockchain economy. That way, we can preserve digital scarcity without unnecessarily accelerating it. In other words, by attempting to stick to the intended algorithmic supply for any given point in time.
Ergo’s halving schedule is faster than Bitcoin’s. Block rewards start at 75 ERG, and decrease steadily after the first two years. There is no ‘long tail’ of emission, and after eight years block rewards will fall to zero. After that, total supply will be fixed. The number of ERG in existence will never be more than 97,739,925.
Storage fees
From that point, however, miners will need further incentives to secure the network. Miners have ongoing costs in terms of bandwidth and storage, and in cases where coins are simply left for years, there is typically no charge for reflecting the value of securing them. The tx fee that is paid up-front in Bitcoin is the only charge ever made for storing those coins.
In Ergo, in addition to transaction fees, miners will also be able to collect storage rent fees on UTXOs that have not been moved for four years or more.
Fees will be deducted slowly, over time – the unmoved UTXOs will not simply be appropriated by miners. Anyone who wants to avoid this simply needs to move their balances once every four years, which is not an onerous requirement for helping incentivise miners and avoiding the deflationary consequences of lost coins. You can read more about how fees will be levied in this paper.
In this way, Ergo seeks to ensure a balance between maintaining digital scarcity, on the one hand, and giving miners long-term incentives to secure the blockchain, on the other – long past the point where new coins have ceased to be released.
submitted by eleanorcwhite to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

3.61 million bitcoins lost, is it good news for bitcoin holders?

According to the Coin Metrics report, it is assumed that the lost Bitcoin includes addresses for destruction (2213), wallet vulnerabilities (2609), and no mobile addresses for many years (1.4969 million). According to Chainalysis research, according to estimates of long-term holders, frequency of transfers, and strategic investors, it is believed that about 3 million cannot be recovered. According to Chain.info research, the total amount of UTXO was classified and estimated at three time points in 2013, 2014, and 2017, and it was found that there were about 3.61 million BTC lost, accounting for 20%. From the perspective of the distribution of bitcoin holdings over the past five years, the proportion of bitcoin holdings over five years has reached 21.62%, and most of this part has actually been withdrawn from circulation. At present, the market value of bitcoin is 909.085 billion yuan. If the lost amount is eliminated (20% has been lost), the actual market value after removal is 728.391 billion yuan. The inflation rate of bitcoin is maintained at about 3.6%. The actual annual inflation rate is about 4.5%, corresponding to the actual annual inflation rate after the block reward halved next year will be about 2.2%. So the good news is that permanently lost bitcoin is a kind of "subsidy" for long-term holders, but the bad news is that the substantial drop in real inflation and private key loss rates is "cutting" long-term holder subsidies.
submitted by Emma5201 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

My wife is about to ruin me in the divorce. I am planning to liquidate everything and leave the country. Bring me to reality. [United States]

I will keep it short. I am a French citizen living inside the United States on a work permit. I thought I was in love with a woman and stupidly decided to get married. I do not want to make this a relationship post, but she ended up cheating on me multiple times. I am stupid so I have little evidence of this to show a court. We had a big fight when talking about getting divorced and she said she was going to take everything from me! We got married when I was a bit poorer, so I did not get a prenuptial. But now I make six figures as a programmer in California, but I am not worried about that too much. I own a significant portfolio of cryptocurrencies, and when bitcoin price went up in 2017 I told my wife about it. I never sold it, but I told her how much the value was at the time (5 million). If you follow cryptocurrency you probably know that bitcoin is worth half of that today. But in a divorce she will claim the I owe her 2.5 million! Even though the portfolio is worth less than that! Even if I proved the actual value of the cryptocurrency she will still want half, i don't want to give anything to the woman who hurt me so bad. So for this reason I have liquidated my 401K, IRA and bank account and converted all my bitcoin and liquid assets into an untraceable coin called monero. Then i'm going back to France and leaving America forever unfortunately. I am a French citizen, and France will not extradite their own. Once everything is settled, I should have enough to generate my current income through dividend stocks and buy a house in the country or I will live with my grandmother for a little. I will leave a note for my wife just so she doesn’t think I died. My flight leaves in two days in the dead of night. All I will take is my laptop, phone, and private keys to my cryptocurrency. I think I will give my grandmother a good shock when she sees me haha.
The reason I write all this is because I understand I am very emotional right now, and I figure the people on this website are not. I have already made some hard to reverse choices financially, but my main concerns are legal. I understand that my wife will begin divorce proceedings but will I still have a legal requirement to pay her anything? And if i do have to what are the consequences of never paying her as a citizen of France? I fear I may be too deep to be talked down but I will read the comments regardless.
For reference me and my wife are in our late 20s my grandmother is 79.
I am sorry for poor English
Edit:
For those curious. I have consulted French and American lawyers. I will leave as planned tomorrow. I will not leave a note, and i will pay US taxes! I'm going to live with my grandmother for the foreseeable future as I recover emotionally. I am very happy with this decision. I miss France, my family, and i started to be unhappy at my job. Thank you Reddit for the advice!
Edit 2:
I made it back home and the first thing I did was meet my lawyer. We went over multiple legal scenarios and everyone was in my favor. The worst scenario would result in a 10,000 euro fine, but that would be rare. I will go back to using reddit from my normal account now, if anything significant happens I might do an update. But if this is my last edit assume the best!
submitted by vivafrance1789 to legaladvice [link] [comments]

In depth interview with Mr. Feng: MW is not only the commercial incentive layer of IPFS

Why did early bitcoin players play MW?Why is blockchain + distributed storage the only industry that can combine mining with practice?How can human beings do things beneficial to social storage while consuming a lot of resources?Special guest Mr. Feng: early believers in bitcoin, co-founder ofMirror World Network MW, to solve our doubts one by one!
Hello, I'm Mr.Feng. I started my business in 2012.I'm an early believer in bitcoin. After two years of silence, I returned to the industry with the help of a group of friends.During this period, a lot of research has been done on distributed storage, including IPFS. So this project is also about the field of distributed storage. I think blockchain + distributed storage is the only industry that can combine mining with practice. While human beings consume a lot of resources, it can also be a commercial storage network beneficial to society. MW is a mature landing project that applies IPFS technology to actual storage, and creates a feasible solution for the landing of blockchain industry.
1. I believe that after your self introduction, many audience friends are concerned about what mirror network is doing recently. Can you share it with audience friends?What achievements have mirror network made in these years?
MW is building an easy-to-use and available distributed storage network, which creates a new computing paradigm and collaboration mode of low-cost trust building in an untrusted competitive environment.We have three years of technical precipitation and have drawn on the experience of IPFS, Alibaba cloud OSS, stoij and other technologies at home and abroad. At present, the code base is close to 900000 lines, and it will also be open-source in the future. Before that, we have run a relatively stable internal test network, and many friends have participated in it.In the next three to four months, we will release our technical achievements, including practical cases, and leave a message for you.
2.What the difference between MW and filecoin?What is the core competitiveness of MW?
I believe you have known IPFS for a long time. Filecoin is the incentive layer of IPFS. To put it simply, it is the financing tool of IPFS. It was dazzling at that time.At the same time, storj and SIA did well.We also chose this way at that time. The original intention of MW is to do real distributed storage. I think MW different from filecoin in terms of starting point. The core competitiveness of MW is technology inclusiveness. We integrate decentralized storage protocol and centralized storage protocol to solve the game between decentralized storage protocol, regulatory layer and practicability.
3.Now, MW public chain has been able to apply IPFS technology to actual storage very mature, and it is the only one.what kind of difficulties did MW encounter and how did you solve them?
In January, we asked for opinions on a small scale in the industry. At that time, we fully demonstrated the storage function and blockchain information, which was unanimously recognized by everyone.Because the team is mainly technical members, the economic model should be the biggest difficulty. After extensive collection of opinions, we adjusted it no less than ten times. Finally, we chose the open and inclusive community governance scheme. There is no model, fair competition, and community motivation is our goal.
4.MW will open the test network on April 18,How should interested users participate in the test?Is there a reward for the test?
Yes, the public beta will be officially launched on April 18, 2020. It will be divided into three stages: pioneer, union and world. You can go to mw.run see the road map , there is a threshold at the earliest stage of the pioneer stage. We need to manually authenticate the added equipment to ensure the stability and robustness of the initial stage of the network, but there will be no block reward, only contribution reward provided by the foundation.After the network is stable, we will open up the block reward and enter the computing power contest period. There will be rewards in the whole public beta stage. You only need to send an email to: [email protected] to apply for joining.
5. Distributed storage mining has always been a concern of miners. What should be paid attention to when mining in MW test network?What are the requirements for mining machines?What factors will affect the mining revenue?
I like to share with you the consensus mechanism of MW. In order to make more storage devices join the MW ecosystem more fairly, and further increase the number of stable nodes in the network to improve the network dispersion, MW adopts DPoS consensus and POC consensus based on weight table.How to understand this? In fact, MW is a very inclusive project. Simply speaking, it is as simple as bitcoin mining through the competition for computing power!We have a set of strict weight calculation and distribution mechanism, which is equivalent to the law of the whole network. It will be announced in genesis block. At present, the size of storage space has the most direct impact on the income. In addition, we have a unique mining pool system, where everyone can establish a mining pool and participate in mining dividends together without having equipment.We don't have too many requirements for mining machines. At present, we only have requirements for network environment, and we need public IP.
6.In your opinion, what is the real "visual" IPFS storage system?How MW achieve "availability" and "ease of use" when building a distributed file storage network?
"Visualization" is actually very easy to understand, that is, it can be seen and felt.Now we have developed a complete visual storage path, and MW is a typical representative of visual storage.Here I highly recommend our internal measurement network that you experience. Like using a network disk, your files can be segmented, hashed and encrypted after uploading. Finally, they can be completely recovered and downloaded. We also made a short tutorial, which can be watched and understood by interested friends.In addition, our goal is to make the IPFS distributed storage system available to all ordinary people, rather than setting too high a threshold, which represents ease of use and availability.
If you want to participate in the internal test, you can contact us before April 18 to register. We will also provide 1000 coins for free.After the test network was officially launched on April 18, all data of the internal test will be reset.
7. IPFS commercial incentive layer, but also what value can MW provide us?What is the ultimate vision of the MW?
MW network can do the following:
a.establish an open distributed blockchain storage network, form a multi chain ecology with existing networks and public chains, and complete data and value transmission.
b.set up a component distributed storage network with idle storage resources in the enterprise and individuals, and deploy various public chains, storage networks and individual nodes.
c.build a global distributed cloud storage compatible with IPFS, public cloud storage and private cloud storage.
Secondly, we need to talk about our collective chain architecture. In the public chain part, MW is an open blockchain + distributed storage system, which mainly provides benefits for the miners and maintains the stability of the network. We will also make an alliance chain in China. MW will become an application network of small distributed data center, providing users with low cost, security and high private storage services can also be used to supervise and audit enterprises and governments in some specific fields or scenarios.
Finally, we can provide data backup, verification and query services for other public chain (open source chain) data.MW is an underlying system focusing on distributed storage.
8.Security has always been a key concern of people. In terms of data security, how does the mirror network ensure data security?
Data loss and privacy are the focus of data storage. I'm sure you have heard a lot of news, including customer information disclosure, downtime, server crash, selling customer privacy and so on. In fact, this is some of the problems that central storage will face. With the continuous growth of data and the improvement of people requirements for data security, the data storage mode is also generating iterations, and IPFS protocol is a very good solution to the privacy processing,On the basis of IPFS, MW also uses technologies such as file segmentation, multi backup, encryption, multi role, data correction and deletion to ensure the data security of users.One of the simplest understandings is that we will always copy three file fragments automatically in the network node to ensure the data security.
9.With the advent of 5g cloud computing era, people have new requirements for bandwidth and traffic. How is the layout of MW?How will distributed storage develop in the future?
We are full of expectations for 5g era, which is one of the reasons why we have only launched MW until now. The small distributed storage computing center close to users is more suitable for the needs of the future era. We will set up a demonstration data center in the public test network, and conduct commercial demonstration for the storage space provided by enterprises.
At the end of last year, I read a research report jointly issued. By 2023, the data storage volume will be twice that of 2019. At present, the industry is in a high-speed development stage, in which distributed storage will enter the mainstream storage market. We have planned a three-year development path, starting with cold data, such as archived data, infrequently called data, etc., public chain miner Hosting as a data center is the business model of our alliance chain. Compared with the traditional data center or cloud, we have a natural price advantage. We can even achieve 10% of the price of Tencent cloud and Alibaba cloud equivalent products. When 5g / 6G is mature, we will enter the mainstream storage market.
In the future, we also hope that global storage, open-source public chains, and enterprises and individuals with storage resources can join Mirror World Network to provide a solid infrastructure for future storage methods, and obtain appropriate rewards.
submitted by MirrorWorldNetwork to u/MirrorWorldNetwork [link] [comments]

Groestlcoin 6th Anniversary Release

Introduction

Dear Groestlers, it goes without saying that 2020 has been a difficult time for millions of people worldwide. The groestlcoin team would like to take this opportunity to wish everyone our best to everyone coping with the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19. Let it bring out the best in us all and show that collectively, we can conquer anything.
The centralised banks and our national governments are facing unprecedented times with interest rates worldwide dropping to record lows in places. Rest assured that this can only strengthen the fundamentals of all decentralised cryptocurrencies and the vision that was seeded with Satoshi's Bitcoin whitepaper over 10 years ago. Despite everything that has been thrown at us this year, the show must go on and the team will still progress and advance to continue the momentum that we have developed over the past 6 years.
In addition to this, we'd like to remind you all that this is Groestlcoin's 6th Birthday release! In terms of price there have been some crazy highs and lows over the years (with highs of around $2.60 and lows of $0.000077!), but in terms of value– Groestlcoin just keeps getting more valuable! In these uncertain times, one thing remains clear – Groestlcoin will keep going and keep innovating regardless. On with what has been worked on and completed over the past few months.

UPDATED - Groestlcoin Core 2.18.2

This is a major release of Groestlcoin Core with many protocol level improvements and code optimizations, featuring the technical equivalent of Bitcoin v0.18.2 but with Groestlcoin-specific patches. On a general level, most of what is new is a new 'Groestlcoin-wallet' tool which is now distributed alongside Groestlcoin Core's other executables.
NOTE: The 'Account' API has been removed from this version which was typically used in some tip bots. Please ensure you check the release notes from 2.17.2 for details on replacing this functionality.

How to Upgrade?

Windows
If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer.
OSX
If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), run the dmg and drag Groestlcoin Core to Applications.
Ubuntu
http://groestlcoin.org/forum/index.php?topic=441.0

Other Linux

http://groestlcoin.org/forum/index.php?topic=97.0

Download

Download the Windows Installer (64 bit) here
Download the Windows Installer (32 bit) here
Download the Windows binaries (64 bit) here
Download the Windows binaries (32 bit) here
Download the OSX Installer here
Download the OSX binaries here
Download the Linux binaries (64 bit) here
Download the Linux binaries (32 bit) here
Download the ARM Linux binaries (64 bit) here
Download the ARM Linux binaries (32 bit) here

Source

ALL NEW - Groestlcoin Moonshine iOS/Android Wallet

Built with React Native, Moonshine utilizes Electrum-GRS's JSON-RPC methods to interact with the Groestlcoin network.
GRS Moonshine's intended use is as a hot wallet. Meaning, your keys are only as safe as the device you install this wallet on. As with any hot wallet, please ensure that you keep only a small, responsible amount of Groestlcoin on it at any given time.

Features

Download

iOS
Android

Source

ALL NEW! – HODL GRS Android Wallet

HODL GRS connects directly to the Groestlcoin network using SPV mode and doesn't rely on servers that can be hacked or disabled.
HODL GRS utilizes AES hardware encryption, app sandboxing, and the latest security features to protect users from malware, browser security holes, and even physical theft. Private keys are stored only in the secure enclave of the user's phone, inaccessible to anyone other than the user.
Simplicity and ease-of-use is the core design principle of HODL GRS. A simple recovery phrase (which we call a Backup Recovery Key) is all that is needed to restore the user's wallet if they ever lose or replace their device. HODL GRS is deterministic, which means the user's balance and transaction history can be recovered just from the backup recovery key.

Features

Download

Main Release (Main Net)
Testnet Release

Source

ALL NEW! – GroestlcoinSeed Savior

Groestlcoin Seed Savior is a tool for recovering BIP39 seed phrases.
This tool is meant to help users with recovering a slightly incorrect Groestlcoin mnemonic phrase (AKA backup or seed). You can enter an existing BIP39 mnemonic and get derived addresses in various formats.
To find out if one of the suggested addresses is the right one, you can click on the suggested address to check the address' transaction history on a block explorer.

Features

Live Version (Not Recommended)

https://www.groestlcoin.org/recovery/

Download

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/mnemonic-recovery/archive/master.zip

Source

ALL NEW! – Vanity Search Vanity Address Generator

NOTE: NVidia GPU or any CPU only. AMD graphics cards will not work with this address generator.
VanitySearch is a command-line Segwit-capable vanity Groestlcoin address generator. Add unique flair when you tell people to send Groestlcoin. Alternatively, VanitySearch can be used to generate random addresses offline.
If you're tired of the random, cryptic addresses generated by regular groestlcoin clients, then VanitySearch is the right choice for you to create a more personalized address.
VanitySearch is a groestlcoin address prefix finder. If you want to generate safe private keys, use the -s option to enter your passphrase which will be used for generating a base key as for BIP38 standard (VanitySearch.exe -s "My PassPhrase" FXPref). You can also use VanitySearch.exe -ps "My PassPhrase" which will add a crypto secure seed to your passphrase.
VanitySearch may not compute a good grid size for your GPU, so try different values using -g option in order to get the best performances. If you want to use GPUs and CPUs together, you may have best performances by keeping one CPU core for handling GPU(s)/CPU exchanges (use -t option to set the number of CPU threads).

Features

Usage

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/VanitySearch#usage

Download

Source

ALL NEW! – Groestlcoin EasyVanity 2020

Groestlcoin EasyVanity 2020 is a windows app built from the ground-up and makes it easier than ever before to create your very own bespoke bech32 address(es) when whilst not connected to the internet.
If you're tired of the random, cryptic bech32 addresses generated by regular Groestlcoin clients, then Groestlcoin EasyVanity2020 is the right choice for you to create a more personalised bech32 address. This 2020 version uses the new VanitySearch to generate not only legacy addresses (F prefix) but also Bech32 addresses (grs1 prefix).

Features

Download

Source

Remastered! – Groestlcoin WPF Desktop Wallet (v2.19.0.18)

Groestlcoin WPF is an alternative full node client with optional lightweight 'thin-client' mode based on WPF. Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is one of Microsoft's latest approaches to a GUI framework, used with the .NET framework. Its main advantages over the original Groestlcoin client include support for exporting blockchain.dat and including a lite wallet mode.
This wallet was previously deprecated but has been brought back to life with modern standards.

Features

Remastered Improvements

Download

Source

ALL NEW! – BIP39 Key Tool

Groestlcoin BIP39 Key Tool is a GUI interface for generating Groestlcoin public and private keys. It is a standalone tool which can be used offline.

Features

Download

Windows
Linux :
 pip3 install -r requirements.txt python3 bip39\_gui.py 

Source

ALL NEW! – Electrum Personal Server

Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server aims to make using Electrum Groestlcoin wallet more secure and more private. It makes it easy to connect your Electrum-GRS wallet to your own full node.
It is an implementation of the Electrum-grs server protocol which fulfils the specific need of using the Electrum-grs wallet backed by a full node, but without the heavyweight server backend, for a single user. It allows the user to benefit from all Groestlcoin Core's resource-saving features like pruning, blocks only and disabled txindex. All Electrum-GRS's feature-richness like hardware wallet integration, multi-signature wallets, offline signing, seed recovery phrases, coin control and so on can still be used, but connected only to the user's own full node.
Full node wallets are important in Groestlcoin because they are a big part of what makes the system be trust-less. No longer do people have to trust a financial institution like a bank or PayPal, they can run software on their own computers. If Groestlcoin is digital gold, then a full node wallet is your own personal goldsmith who checks for you that received payments are genuine.
Full node wallets are also important for privacy. Using Electrum-GRS under default configuration requires it to send (hashes of) all your Groestlcoin addresses to some server. That server can then easily spy on your transactions. Full node wallets like Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server would download the entire blockchain and scan it for the user's own addresses, and therefore don't reveal to anyone else which Groestlcoin addresses they are interested in.
Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server can also broadcast transactions through Tor which improves privacy by resisting traffic analysis for broadcasted transactions which can link the IP address of the user to the transaction. If enabled this would happen transparently whenever the user simply clicks "Send" on a transaction in Electrum-grs wallet.
Note: Currently Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server can only accept one connection at a time.

Features

Download

Windows
Linux / OSX (Instructions)

Source

UPDATED – Android Wallet 7.38.1 - Main Net + Test Net

The app allows you to send and receive Groestlcoin on your device using QR codes and URI links.
When using this app, please back up your wallet and email them to yourself! This will save your wallet in a password protected file. Then your coins can be retrieved even if you lose your phone.

Changes

Download

Main Net
Main Net (FDroid)
Test Net

Source

UPDATED – Groestlcoin Sentinel 3.5.06 (Android)

Groestlcoin Sentinel is a great solution for anyone who wants the convenience and utility of a hot wallet for receiving payments directly into their cold storage (or hardware wallets).
Sentinel accepts XPUB's, YPUB'S, ZPUB's and individual Groestlcoin address. Once added you will be able to view balances, view transactions, and (in the case of XPUB's, YPUB's and ZPUB's) deterministically generate addresses for that wallet.
Groestlcoin Sentinel is a fork of Groestlcoin Samourai Wallet with all spending and transaction building code removed.

Changes

Download

Source

UPDATED – P2Pool Test Net

Changes

Download

Pre-Hosted Testnet P2Pool is available via http://testp2pool.groestlcoin.org:21330/static/

Source

submitted by Yokomoko_Saleen to groestlcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Recovery and Private Key Finder Tool For All Non-spendable Funds. Hack Non-Spendable bitcoin 2020 Recover your Encrypted Bip38 Private Key - Install Guide HOW TO FIND BITCOIN PRIVATE KEY FOR ALL BITCOIN WALLETS WHATSAPP +13234416844 Private Key Hack 0 1 BTC With Proof 2020

The devices act as an extra layer of private key protection from online and exterior vulnerabilities. However, it is possible to lose a hardware wallet, damage the device, and even have it stolen We take care of the security and look after your private key (essentially the password giving you access to your Bitcoin) for you. If you forget the password to your account, we can help you Private keys are not just the passwords but it determines the ownership of coins. In this article, let us unlock the meaning of the private key of your Bitcoin wallet. Also, we will explain the procedure to recover the bitcoin wallet with private key (in case you lost the keys!) Private Key Of Your Bitcoin Wallet | Quick Review W e will give you specifically the following, bitcoin private key finder online tools, this tools will help you to recover lost bitcoin funds from personal and dormant wallet addresses and we advice that you do not use our tools the wrong way. Bitcoin private key finder 2020 is the latest version of the available tools and what this tool does differently is that is faster more reliable and We Are Group Of Hackers That Have Taken Upon Ourselves To Help All Victims That Have Lost Funds In One Way Or The Other To Get Revenge.For A Long Time Now People Have Been Touring The Internet In Search Of Bitcoin Private Key Software Generator Consider Your Problems Solved.Many Investment Companies Have Shutdown With Investors Funds Others Have Encrypted The Funds And Tell Them To Deposit

[index] [24444] [21536] [22394] [6190] [26056] [24731] [942] [19901] [30265] [27076]

Bitcoin Recovery and Private Key Finder Tool For All Non-spendable Funds.

GET THE NEW BITCOIN PRIVATE KEY RECOVERY(SCANNER) A LIGHT MODE VERSION OF 3.5PRO INSTANTLY FROM US HERE WITH AN ACTIVATED FREE LICENSE KEY: CONTACT VIA EMAIL OR TELEGRAM TO GET IT NOW.. EMAIL ... bitcoin private key hack, spend non spendable funds in blockchain recover all lost funds recover stolen funds hack any bitcoin wallet using bitcoin wallet address only. works with legacy and ... How To Find Any Bitcoin Private key Instantly Recover funds BTC with Private key - Duration: 2:57. Captain Stupid 4,285 views. 2:57. Our software🛠 for private🗝 key is working perfectly kindly visit our site to get my contact information. We will help you recover and spend your non spendable bitcoin ... Bitcoin private key finder software 2020 updated version Download :https://btctools.info bitcoin private key finder software, bitcoin private key cracker online, bitcoin private key finder download,

Flag Counter